The working assumption for collective bargaining was a linear reduction of 50%, with the lowest number of exceptions. A lengthy argument was made as to the trade impact, which would have a uniform linear reduction on the dispersed rates (low and high tariffs, quite distant) of the United States compared to the much more concentrated rates of the EEC, which also tended to be in the lower tariff rates of the United States. The Doha Development Round began in 2001. The Doha Round began in 2001 with a ministerial meeting in Doha, Qatar. The objective was to focus on the needs of developing countries. Among the main factors discussed are trade facilitation, services, rules of origin and dispute settlement. Special and differential treatment of developing countries was also discussed as a major concern. Ministerial meetings were then held in Cancún, Mexico (2003) and Hong Kong (2005). Negotiations were held in Paris, France (2005), Potsdam, Germany (2007) and Geneva, Switzerland (2004, 2006, 2008). Progress in the negotiations was bogged down after the failure of the negotiations in July 2008.
  In the end, the result was an average tariff reduction of 35%, with the exception of textiles, chemicals, steel and other sensitive products; plus a reduction in tariffs on agri-food products from 15% to 18%. In addition, the negotiations on chemicals resulted in a provisional agreement on the abolition of the US selling price (ASP). This was a method of valuation of certain chemicals used by these countries for the imposition of import duties, which allowed domestic producers to benefit from a much higher level of protection than that indicated in the customs regulations. Prior to the introduction of the GATT/WTO (WTO) Agreement on 1 July 1995, variable import levies were levied on imports from third countries. . . .